The Bali Process on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime

Friday, 08 Apr 2022
education and labor mobility

Comparative Analysis of Education and Labor Mobility Pathways Publication 


The Bali Process RSO, UNHCR Asia and the Australian Government are pleased to present the Comparative Analysis of Education and Labor Mobility Pathways. The publication was developed to compare existing education and labor mobility pathways and to share good practices. The purpose is to assist UNHCR offices, as well as governments considering opening pathways, by providing guidance and models as States seek to refine their own work on pathways for admission for refugees and asylum seekers. 


The publication highlights 7 guiding principles for the successful implementation of complementary pathways:

  1. Protection: Complementary pathways should be designed so that the rights of refugees are protected
  2. Durable Solutions: Complementary pathways can be part of a progressive approach to enhancing refugee self-reliance
  3. Responsibility Sharing: Third country solutions are responsibility-sharing mechanisms to better support host countries and communities
  4. Additionality of Complementary Pathways: Complementary pathways are essential to UNHCR assisted resettlement and should lead to a net increase in third-country solutions
  5. Non-Discrimination: Refugees should be treated equally and have fair access to third-country opportunities irrespective of age, gender, or any other characteristics
  6. Family Unit: Family members should be considered together for third county solutions and be able to reunite
  7. Agency and Self-reliance: Respect the agency of refugees and promote self-reliance. 


Additionally, the publication shows recommendations to key challenges and questions in regard to education and labor mobility pathways like language requirements, financing, education background, and other legal requirements. The publication is available upon request for Bali Process Member States and partners. Please contact for more information.